Et al., 2010; Paul, Nieto, Carlquist, Blair, Harshey, 2010; Ryjenkov, Simm, R ling

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Motility is promoted by the crucial PDE YhjH, which properly removes motility-dedicated c-di-GMP (Le Guyon et al., 2015; Pesavento et al., 2008; Simm et al., 2007) and consequently the motility/sessility switch is observed upon deletion of YhjH (Simm et al., 2007) or, far more pronounced, upon overNat for support. The authors thank Steffi Hahn for expression of DGCs and PDEs (Simm et al., 2004). Although csgD represses swimming motility in E. coli K-12 (Dudin et al., 2014; Ogasawara, Yamamoto, Ishihama, 2011), a correlation in between csgD expression and motility was not observed. Regardless of whether lack of swimming motility in precise strains is because of dysfunctionality of the flagella regulon or differential functionality of c-di-GMP turnover proteins has to be additional elucidated.four.3|Variability in c-di-GMP turnover proteins indicates adaptation to host or environmental conditionsIn the rdar28 /saw37 strain Fec10, a close relative to E. coli K-12 MG1655, all c-di-GMP turnover proteins are present and most are identical to MG1655. That is surprising as Fec10 was isolated much more than 50 years after E. coli K-12. The other strains include further gene items, gene deletions, gene truncations and aa substitutions in their c-di-GMP turnover protein network. The GGDEF and EAL domain protein pool analyzed from 61 E. coli genomes derived4.four|Evolution of c-di-GMP turnover proteins mediates variable modulation of biofilm formationIn the investigated strains, YciR is actually a main target of mutations that cause altered protein activity. The nonsense mutation altering the TGG codon to a TAG quit codon within the urosepsis strain B-11870 is reflected by a TGA stop codon at the very same position inside the EHEC strainCIMDINS et al.13 of|F I G U R E 5 Implies of YciR-based regulation of csgD expression. (a) In E. coli K-12 model strain, the trigger enzyme YciR can straight bind to and interfere with all the functionality of DGC YdaM and MlrA, a transcriptional regulator activating csgD expression. Suppression is relieved upon high cyclic di-GMP levels. (b) YciR-mediated regulation could be adjusted by introduction of a cease codon within the ORF, top to solely expression in the PAS-PAC-GGDEF domain (left) or by amino acid substitutions interfering together with the expression/functionality of YciR (proper)O111:H- 11128 (Povolotsky Hengge, 2016) indicating that a truncated YciR lacking the EAL domain will not be exclusive to B-11870. In E. coli, YciR is proposed to inhibit the DGC YdaM and MlrA by way of protein rotein interactions within a c-di-GMP-dependent manner, to downregulate csgD expression. YdaM and MlrA are then released upon increasing c-di-GMP levels (Hengge, 2016; Lindenberg et al., 2013). A more Nat for support. The authors thank Steffi Hahn for pronounced effect of EAL domain mutants PubMed ID: in PubMed ID: downregulation with the rdar morphotype (Figure four) apparently confirms the previously described unresponsiveness to c-di-GMP levels with tighter binding of YdaM and MlrA.Et al., 2010; Paul, Nieto, Carlquist, Blair, Harshey, 2010; Ryjenkov, Simm, R ling Et al., 2010; Paul, Nieto, Carlquist, Blair, Harshey, 2010; Ryjenkov, Simm, R ling, Gomelsky, 2006) and through production of cellulose (Le Guyon, Simm, Rehn, R ling, 2015; Zorraquino et al., 2013)).