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62, 95% CI 1.13�C6.08, P=0.024). MAF2-infected patients were significantly less likely to have a positive ESAT-6/CFP-10 enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) test result compared with EAMTB patients (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.17�C0.58, PR428 and in those with worse X-ray abnormalities, without reporting a significant difference in the duration of cough. The predilection of MAF2 for causing disease in HIV-infected patients suggests the presence of a larger reservoir of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with MAF2 relative to its prevalence among patients with active disease. A larger reservoir of LTBI with MAF2 in the Gambia could explain the association of MAF2 Smoothened Agonist cell line and HIV in the Gambia (de Jong et al., 2005), in contrast to Ghana, where no such association was identified (Meyer et al., 2008). Alternatively, significant polymorphisms could exist between Gambian and Ghanaian lineages of MAF2, as suggested by single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of a few such isolates (Hershberg et al., 2008). The older age of MAF2 patients may be related to the lower prevalence of MAF2 relative to EAMTB or to the lower progression to disease in MAF2-exposed contacts during the first 2 years after exposure (de Jong et al., 2008). While the association with HIV-infected hosts suggests attenuation of MAF2, the chest radiographs of MAF2 patients showed worse findings than those of EAMTB patients, and MAF2 patients were significantly more likely to be severely underweight. Perhaps attenuation of MAF2 results in a lower degree of immunosuppression of the host, resulting in a stronger inflammatory response and associated weight loss. The lack of a clear association between MAF2 and ethnicity ABT-737 nmr suggests that MAF2 does not select for hosts of a certain genetic background, unless this is a shared background between the different ethnicities present in the Gambia. The higher prevalence among people of Manjago ethnicity, who originate from Guinea-Bissau, is probably explained by the 51% prevalence of MAF2 in Guinea-Bissau (Kallenius et al., 1999). Similarly, the lower prevalence in people of Wollof ethnicity correlates with a lower prevalence of MAF2 in Senegal (around 20%; Diop et al., 1976), where the Wollofs originate. The stable prevalence of MAF2 in this cohort, albeit over a short time span in evolutionary terms, suggests that MAF2 is not being outcompeted rapidly by EAMTB, as was described in Cameroon for MAF1 (Niobe-Eyangoh et al., 2003). MAF, which causes 39% of tuberculosis in the Gambia, is more common among older patients and among HIV-coinfected tuberculosis patients.